The object and purpose of philosophy.

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The object and purpose of philosophy.

Сообщение dilrabo_a » 18 окт 2016, 23:18

Text of primary sources
(Fragments of philosophical works)

On the history of the genesis of philosophy
Problem of philosophy is interested in some ancient philosophers. Various aspects of the problem attracted the attention of Plato and Aristotle, and Diogenes Laertius Olympiodorus.
Plato had already noticed the psychological aspect of the problem. According to Plato, the beginning of philosophy in wonder (wonder). In Plato's dialogue "Teatet" says: "... just a philosopher tend to experience ... surprise. This is the beginning of philosophy ...". This guess Plato in the heuristic value of the emotions of surprise builds upon Aristotle. Indeed, according to Aristotle, people began to philosophize, avoiding ignorance. But to do that they had to reach the knowledge of his ignorance. Indeed, knowledge is not ignorance of what is given directly. Generally, people do not realize their ignorance. Ignorance, if it unknowingly, cannot be overcome. Before we seek to know anything, one must realize that he does not know. And for that person should be thrown into a state of astonishment, bewilderment, surprise. That's what emotional state, this ability to wonder, wonder that usually seems self-evident and self-evident, familiar, and therefore understandable - psychological source as the beginning of philosophy itself, and the fact that people become philosophers. "With surprise, - the" Metaphysics "of Aristotle - the people and now (philosophize - AC) for the first time and began to philosophize."
A.N Chanyshev "The beginning of philosophy"
"... The true philosopher chase away all the desires of the body are attached and for what they are not inferior, without fear of ruin and poverty, in contrast to most who defraud, and though they, unlike the power-hungry and ambitious, not afraid of dishonor and shaming delivered Grouch lives, they shall refrain from desire ...
... Those who want to know, it is well known that: when philosophy takes custody of their soul, the soul of a tightly-tightly connected to the body and is stuck to it, it has to consider and comprehend things not by itself, but through the body, as if through prison bars, and wallowing in the most profound ignorance. He sees the whole philosophy and a formidable force of the prison: obeying the passions, the prisoner himself stronger than any guardian watches his own dungeon. Yes, the longing to know and know what position it is their soul, when philosophy takes her under his wing and with quiet persuasion shall be released, revealing the extent to which vision is deceptive, misleading rumor and the senses, urging parted from them, do not use them the Service as a possible, and advising the soul concentrate and gather in itself, trust only yourself, and not be considered a true nothing of it with other researchers from other things, in other words, of the tangible and visible, for what he sees the soul, intelligibility and without form. Here's the release, which does not consider it necessary to resist the spirit of the true philosopher, and because it runs from the joys, desires, sorrows and fears, so far as she could, knowing that if anyone much pleased or sad, or scared, or covered by a strong desire, he suffers only the usual evil, and what would be expected - for example, sick or squander, indulging his passions - but the greatest, the most extreme of all evils, and not even aware of this report ...
... any joy or sorrow is like a nail, which she nails the soul to the body, stabs her and does as it bodily, pressing for the truth of all that tell the body. A separating presentation and taste of the body, the soul, I think, inevitably takes over the rules and habits, and will never come to her to Hades pure - it always moves, burdened with the body, and so soon again falls into a different body, and, like seed corn, sprout. So it is deprived of its share in communion with the divine, pure and uniform. "
Plato. Phaedo / / Vol. In three volumes, Moscow, 1970. T. 2. P.48-50
"... We need to consider what are the causes and start, which is the science of wisdom ... First, we assume that the wise as possible to know everything, even though he has no knowledge of each subject separately. Second, we consider the wise one who is able to learn the difficult and not easy for the man comprehended (after perceiving feelings common to all, but because it is easy and nothing wise to do so). Third, we believe that a more wise in every science the one who is more accurate and more able to learn to identify the causes, and / fourth / that of the sciences is more wisdom that which is desirable for the sake of benefit from it, a / fifth / one that predominates - is more than an auxiliary, for the wise should not receive instructions, and instruct, and he should obey another, and he was - the one who is less wise.
But ... and more able to teach the science which investigates the reasons for teach those who give the reasons for everything. A knowledge and understanding for the sake of knowledge and understanding of the most characteristic of science is that the most worthy knowledge, for those who prefer to knowledge for the sake of knowledge, most prefer the most advanced science, and science is the most worthy of knowing. And the most worthy of the first elements of knowledge and the reasons for it is through them and, based on known anything else, not them through what they complied. And science, which most dominant and main subsidiary, - the one that knows the purpose for which it is necessary to act in each case, there is a goal in every case or that good, and the whole of nature in general - is the best.
So, from all this it follows that the name / wisdom / need to refer to one and the same science: it must be a science investigating the first principles and reasons, after all, the good, and the "something for which" there is one of the types of reasons. And that is not an art of creation, the first philosophers have explained ... If, therefore, began to philosophize, to get rid of ignorance, then, obviously, to have sought knowledge for the sake of understanding, not for any good ... It is therefore clear that we are not looking for it for any other need. And as well as a free call to a man who lives for his own sake, and not for the other, in the same way and that the only free science, for it alone exists for its own sake. "
Aristotle. Metaphysics / / Vol. 4 volumes, Moscow, 1975.
T. 1. Pp. 67-69.
"Philosopher defines that first philosophy is the knowledge of the truth, not what you want, and the truth, which is the source of all truth, and that applies to the first principles of life to all things, from which it follows that the truth is the beginning of all truth, for the order of things in the truth is the same as in being ... "
Thomas Aquinas. Amount against the pagans 1,1 / / Thomas Aquinas. Summa contra gentiles seu de veritate catholicae fidei. Taurini, 1925. P. 1.
"... Philosophy is the most natural human mind, diligently studying all the works of the creator, to find and report the truth about their artless manner, their causes and consequences. Philosophy is the daughter of your mind and the universe, and lives in you, however, is not yet in a clear manner like the universe during her shapeless start ... Let your mind (because you want to work seriously on philosophy) hovers over the chaotic abyss of your reasoning and experiments. All chaotic should be broken down into component parts, and the latter should be distinguished from each other, and all parts and get the corresponding symbol must take its permanent place. In other words, the method must match the order of creation of things. Same order of creation was as follows: light, divide the day from the night, space, heaven, sensuously perceived, man. The final act of creation was the establishment of the law. The order of the study will therefore, the following: thinking, determination, space, constellations, sensory property, people, and after the final maturity - the citizen.
... For even those who aspire to wealth, love wisdom because he enjoys a treasure because they are like a mirror reflects his wisdom...
Philosophy ... is knowledge, achieved through proper reasoning (recta ratiocinatio) and explaining the action, or the phenomena of the known causes, or manufacturing bases, and, conversely, the possible manufacturing base - we know of action...
Philosophy ... is divided into two main sections. Anyone who has started to investigate the origin and properties of bodies faces two very different types of each of the latter. One of them covers the objects and phenomena that are called natural, because they are products of nature, the other - things and events that have arisen due to the human will, by virtue of the agreement and the agreement of people called the state. Therefore philosophy falls into the philosophy of nature and philosophy of the state. But since then, in order to know the properties of the state, you must first study the addiction affects and morals of the people, the philosophy of the state is usually divided into two sections, the first of which deals with the dispositions and habits, called the ethics, and the second explores the civil responsibilities - politics or philosophy just state. "
Thomas Hobbes to the reader. On TV / / Selected Works.
In two volumes, Moscow, 1964. Volume 1, pp. 49-60
"... The word" philosophy "means the exercise of wisdom, and that wisdom is meant for not only prudence in business, but also a perfect knowledge of all that man can know, and the same knowledge that directs life itself, is the preservation of health, as well as discoveries in all sciences. And that philosophy has become so, it must be taken out of the first causes, so that he who tries to master it (which means, in fact, to philosophize), began with the study of the first causes, called principles. To these principles, there are two requirements. First, they need to be as clear and self-evident, that upon careful consideration of the human mind could not doubt their truth, and second, the knowledge of the rest must depend on them so that at the start and could be known in addition to the knowledge of other things However, conversely, the latter could not be known without knowing the principles. It is necessary to understand what is the knowledge of things from the principles on which they depend, is displayed in a way that a number of conclusions in all there is nothing that would not have been quite clear. It is quite wise in fact, one God, for he held a perfect knowledge of all, and people can be called more or less wise, according to how much or how little they know the truth about the most important things ...
Philosophy ... (since it applies to all accessible to human knowledge) alone separates us from the savages and barbarians, and that every nation of citizenship and the more educated, the better it philosophize, so not for the greater good of the state, as a true philosopher ...
The first stage ... only contains concepts that by its own light so clear that they can be purchased without thinking. The second stage covers everything that gives us a sensual experience. Third - what is taught to communicate with other people. It can be attached, in fourth place, reading books, certainly not all, but mostly those written by people who can give us good instructions, and this was like the appearance of communication with their creators. All the wisdom by what normally have been acquired, in my opinion, these four ways. I do not include here the divine revelation, because it is not gradually, but at once lifts us up unerring faith. But at all times there have been great men who tried to join the fifth stage of wisdom, far more sublime and true than the previous four, apparently, they did extremely well, which first sought out the causes and the true beginning of which led out to explain the available knowledge. And those who have tried it, got the name of the philosopher par excellence ...
The whole philosophy ... It is like a tree whose roots - metaphysics, the trunk - the physics, and the branches coming from the trunk - all other sciences, reduced to three main: medicine, mechanics and ethics ...
... I know that it may take many centuries before of these principles will be displayed all the truth, which can be extracted from there, as the truth, which should be found, to a large extent depend on the individual experiments, the latter is never occur by chance but should also look for discerning people with the care and the costs ... "
R. Descartes, Principles of Philosophy. / / Selected Works.
Moscow, 1950. Pp. 411-426.
"... As a matter of fact, the whole philosophy is only the human mind in foggy language ... philosophy ... from the hands of physics he accepts the latter, that he became the first ..."
Goethe IV Selected Philosophical Works.
M., 1964. S. 350.137.
"... As a general philosophy of knowledge, covering the whole person, may, according to circumstances, to borrow the external form and original formula of all sciences, one time out of one another in this, and to use them for a while, but it should always be free use, which finds confirmation is a deliberate choice and change. The method of free thinking, which is exactly the philosophy should not be prepared mechanically, like an iron chain mail of a myriad of very small homogeneous chains and rings of these scientist connected rings, and their judgments of higher logical linkages, as is the case in mathematics. The method does not have to be uniform, and the spirit should never be in the service method, sacrificing substance for form. Since the universality of philosophical thinking and knowledge from here and the resulting diversity and change free methods is the case in much the same, on the other hand, in representing arts and poetry, which covers and cover the whole person and the most free to borrow their comparison or paint and various figurative expressions from all walks of life, life and nature, then one, then the other, depending on what it has been given a more appropriate in any given case ... philosophy can sometimes take the form of the moral law or the judicial debate , another time as a natural historical descriptions or historical-genealogical development and launch concepts she can express thoughts that wants to understand in a connected sequence. Sometimes, it may, in the form of natural science experience higher natural philosophy experiment will endeavor to provide an invisible force that she needed to prove ... "
ShlegelF. Philosophy of life / / Aesthetics. Philosophy. Criticism. Moscow, 1983. V.2. Pp. 348-350.
"... Philosophy, and, moreover, each individual philosophy, has its own language. The language of philosophy as distinct from the poetic language, and the language of everyday life. In the language of poetry is scheduled only infinite, not specifically indicated, as is the language of everyday life, with its objects. Philosophical same language must specifically designate the infinite, as does ordinary language with objects of everyday life as a mechanical art treated with useful items. Therefore philosophy should create its own language of the two others. But, like the philosophy, he is an eternal aspiration, and just as there is a single philosophy, there is also a single philosophical language, but each has its own philosophy ...
Philosophical ... a matter of speculation is not suitable for all, but only for a few people, and only a few can understand it. Need to philosophize yourself if you want to understand the language of philosophy, whereas for the understanding of poetic language must possess a common, natural abilities and some development ...
... As essential to the understanding of a philosophical language is necessary, first, to philosophize itself, and secondly, it is to learn the language of each philosophy. Third, it requires a lot of knowledge of academics and fourthly, that is true of the whole non-partisan judge must accurately acquainted with the principles and ideas of every philosopher, actually write the story of the spirit of each philosophy in its development, the origin, the formation of his ideas and opinions and the final result or, if not, to indicate the reason for this and explore it. This assumes, however, full possession of the works, in which he outlined a system of philosophy. Need to survey it in its entirety, for philosophy is understandable only as a whole. "
F. Schlegel history of European literature / / Aesthetics. Philosophy. Criticism. Moscow, 1983. V.2. Pp. 88-90.
"The science so far is the unity of art and religion, as in its external form, the method of contemplation of art, its inherent activity of the subjective creation and splitting its substantial content into many independent forms, is in the totality of religion. In religion, in the view unfolds difference and mediation and self-disclosure of the form not only held together in a whole, but are united in a simple spiritual contemplation, and finally rise to thinking, self-aware. This knowledge is thus the known means of thinking the concept of art and religion, in which all that different in content, cognized as necessary, and it is necessary to know how to free ...
According to this philosophy ... is defined as the knowledge of the need to maintain absolute submission, and the need to both its forms - on the one hand, the direct contemplation and his poetry, and equally objective and external revelation, which is supposed to view, and on the other hand, primarily subjective occurrence in itself, then also going outside of subjective belief and identification with the premise. This cognition is thus a recognition of the content and form of exemption from the one-sidedness and forms, their rise to absolute form, defining itself as content to stay with him the identity and this identity, which is a cognition referred to in-itself-and-for -itself-out of sheer necessity. This movement, which is the philosophy, is already implemented, when it is in the conclusion comprehends his own concept, looks back only to the knowledge of his.
Hegel. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. M. 1977.T.3. Pp. 393-394.
"The science" So absolute philosophical act is pointless to make objective, incomprehensible - understandable, in other words, the object of vital interest to turn into a mental object, an object of knowledge - it is the same act that philosophy in general owes its knowledge existence. A direct consequence of this is the fact that the beginning of the beginning of philosophy of science in general, and not at the beginning of special knowledge, other than the knowledge of real science. This is confirmed even history. Philosophy - the mother of sciences. Early naturalists, both ancient and modern times, were philosophers ... As the philosophy of let dissociate themselves, but if it starts with the separation, it is never appropriate at the end of the experience is not united, as it is still desirable - after all by an independent principle, it never goes beyond the terms of a separate science, it would always remain a far-fetched scrupulous behavior of an individual that is afraid of losing his dignity one touch with empirical tools, like a mere quill body was an instrument of revelation and truth, not astronomical telescope, not mineralogical blowpipe, not a geological hammer and magnifying nerd ... and how philosophy comes to the experience? The fact that it only learns the results? No. Just the fact that she sees in the empirical work as a philosophical activity, recognizing that there are thinking and vision, that sense organs are the bodies of philosophy. Modern philosophy is distinguished from scholastic philosophy, she reconnected with the empirical work of thinking, that it is opposed to thinking, distinguishing himself from the real thing, put the thesis - philosophize be guided by feeling. So if we look at the beginning of modern philosophy, we will have before us the real beginning of philosophy. Not at the end of the way philosophy comes to reality, rather it begins with reality. Only this way, and not one that is planned by the author in accordance with speculative philosophy since Fichte, is the only natural, that is expedient and right way. Spirit follows a feeling, not a feeling - for the spirit: the spirit is the end, not the beginning of things. The transition from experience to philosophy is inevitable, as the transition from philosophy to experience - the arbitrary whim. Philosophy begins with experience, it remains eternally young, philosophy, experience comes to an end, eventually grows old, and satiated itself becomes a burden ... "
L. Feuerbach the "beginning of philosophy" / / Selected Philosophical Works. Moscow, 1955. Vol.1, pp. 98-99.
"... In my opinion, every philosophy has always theoretically, because, whatever the immediate object of its study, it is essentially only reflects and explores, and not prescriptive. Become a practical guide behavior, to re-nature - it's her old claims, which she now matured in their opinion, should be finally abandoned.
We ... of the opinion that all of those are from the stars in the sky are still far from philosophical knowledge of the world, who thinks he can somehow historically comprehend its essence, even though it was very thinly disguised, and so think all those , who in his view of the nature of the world which allows whatever formation or become, or what will become, who attributes the slightest value concepts sooner or later, and thus explicitly or implicitly seeks and finds the start and end points of the world, and have at the same time and the road between the two, and philosophizing individual, perhaps, learn and their own place in the road. (...) This historical philosophizing in most cases, a cosmogony, allowing a lot of options, or a system of emanations, the theory of the falling away, or, finally, to the despair of the futility of attempts along these lines he seeks refuge and the last building opposite doctrine of permanent establishment, growth, origin, manifestation of the darkness into the light, a dark base pervoosnovaniya, bezosnovaniya and the like nonsense, from which, however, can only shake briefly remark that up to the present moment has been spent an eternity, that is, infinite time, why all that we can and must take place, has to be. Because this whole historical philosophy, how much importance it themselves or let in, take the time for setting things in themselves (as if Kant had never existed) and so stuck on what Kant called the phenomenon as opposed to a thing in itself, the fact that Plato called becoming, never existent, as opposed to existence, never becoming, at that, finally, that the Indians called the Maya cloth: in other words, this philosophy is subservient to the law is limited to the knowledge base, through which one can never reach the inner nature of things but you can only go to infinity in the following phenomena, moving without end or purpose like in small circles, until finally, exhausted finder stops at any point up or down, and then wanting to achieve and by others to respect it.
True philosophical view of the world, ie one that teaches us to know his inner self and thus takes us beyond the phenomenon, do not ask, how and where and why, but always and everywhere just interested in his world: in other words, it considers things not in any respect, not as a fleeting and becoming - in a word, not in any of the four forms of legal grounds, on the contrary, has as its object the very thing that is to eliminate all of the slave called the law a way of knowing, that is manifested in all relativity, but it is not itself subject to what is always equal to the essence of the world, his idea. Of this knowledge comes from both art and philosophy, is also based on (...), and the mood of the spirit, which alone leads to true holiness and redemption of the world. "
A. Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation / / Anthology of world philosophy. 4 volumes, Moscow, 1971, Vol.3. with. 694-696.
"... In fact: explaining how wilt most abstract metaphysical assertions philosopher, better (and smarter) only to wonder where all this (which he is) oppression - that the morality he pursues his philosophy? Accordingly, I do not believe that the "desire for knowledge" gave birth to philosophy, and I believe that is quite different drive (as always) took advantage of this same knowledge (or "mind") as his instrument ...
Martyrdom ... philosopher, when he "sacrificed himself for the sake of truth," forces to come to the surface all that is in it from the actor and agitator, and if we assume that there is still looked at him with an aesthetic curiosity, for many philosophers sometimes clear a dangerous desire to see them in the degeneracy (when they degenerate into a "martyrs," screaming from the stage and stands).
No one ... not so easy to agree to assume the kind of teaching true only because it makes people happy or virtuous ... Something extremely harmful and dangerous might be true, and it could be that in the dispensation of the fundamental human existence lies perdition the fullness of his knowledge, so that then the power of the mind would be measured by the number of "truth" is able to make it, or to say more clearly the extent to which it needs to be to the truth is diluted, distorted, sweetened, Blears, curtain. But there is no doubt that for the discovery of truth in certain parts of its people are poor and evil are in a particularly advantageous position and can probably count on luck ... Maybe, cunning and cruelty favor the emergence of a strong and independent mind and a philosopher - more degree, rather than yielding complacency and art about everything easily, so valued, and rightly so, in a learned man. Main (must be reminded of this), not to narrow the term "philosopher" to writing philosophy books - especially one who is in the books discusses his philosophy! ... "
F. Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil. / / Problems of Philosophy.
1989, № 5. Pp. 126-127, 137.144.
"... Philosophy, science - is the name of a particular class of cultural entities ...
Ideas ... inherent in human semantic structure of a new kind of surprising, complete with its intentional infinity, is something quite different than the real thing in space, which, entering the field of human experience, thus do not become significant for the person as an individual. Having created the first concept of the idea, the person becomes a totally new person. His spiritual being embarks on a path of constant renewal. First, a communicative-motion; awakens a new style of life of the person in the circle, and in imitation and understanding - a corresponding new formation. First, in the framework of the movement (and in the future in addition to it) occurs and extends special humanity, which, living in the end, tends to infinity pole. At the same time, a new way of social connections and a new form of continuously existing communities, the spiritual life which carries through the love of ideas, production ideas and ideal normalization of life in the infinite horizon of the future: the infinite generations, brushing up under the influence of ideas. All this is happening first in the spiritual space of a single, the Greek nation as a development philosophy and philosophical communities. However, in this nation develops universal spirit of culture, giving rise to all the humanity, so is the progressive transformation into a new form of historicity ...
In the historical horizon to philosophy existed a cultural form that would be the cultural idea in the above sense, would know the endless tasks, ideal universe, who in general and its components, as well as in the methods of work would be to have a sense of infinity ...
Philosophy ... extending in the form of research and education, has two kinds of spiritual influence. On the one hand, the most important in the theoretical line of philosophical man - is truly universal critical position, the determination not to accept without question any final opinion, no tradition to question the whole time traditionally given to the truth of the universe itself, to be ideal. But it is not only a new cognitive position. By requiring subordinate all empiricism ideal norms, namely norms absolute truth will soon come far-reaching changes in the total practice of human existence, therefore, the entire cultural life, and it should now meet the standards of objective truth, not tradition and naive experience of everyday life. So perfect truth is an absolute value, entailing - by means of an educational movement and constant interference in parenting - universally transformed practice. One has only to reflect on the way this transformation, it finds the inevitable: if the idea of truth itself becomes a universal norm in all there are relative truths of human life, then it applies to all of the traditional rules of law, beauty, purpose, values, personality rulers values - human characters etc.
So there is, therefore, in parallel with the creation of a new culture of humanity and the particular special calling in life. Philosophical knowledge of the world not only gives these original results, but also of human relations, soon manifests itself in all other practical life, with all its needs and goals - goals historical tradition, in which a person is on, it is solely in its light. There is a new, internal community, we might say, the community of interests purely ideal - the community of people living philosophy, coupled devotion to the ideas that are not only beneficial to all, but all belong to the same. Inevitably produces a special kind of product and community - the result of collaboration and mutual support critical - pure and absolute truth as the property ... "
Husserl E. The crisis of European humanity and philosophy / / Problems of Philosophy. 1986. Number 3. Pp. 104-106,108-109.
"... We called a philosopher who does not behave like the others who neglect decency ...
... On the other hand, the word philosophy of our society connects idea of something very dark, difficult, to only a few specialists ...
... Meanwhile, philosophy is something very ordinary, something so inseparable from our being that we are philosophizing without learning, with every word, every meaningful action philosophizing good or bad, but always and inevitably ...
... The fact that philosophy, and it alone, is making sense and human value to all, where she belongs. We comprehend our business as much as brings in an element of philosophy. How much a person is obliged to give himself a clear account in every word, in their thoughts, feelings and actions, so he has to philosophize. Neglect of philosophy in itself is a distortion of the human mind. Requirement conscious philosophy ravnoznachitelno demand for human development.
Philosophy ... is the construction of the knowledge of all the information into a coherent system, the understanding of everything as a single, united in understanding. The philosophy of the work is the introduction of understanding the world and life in the creative work, the embodiment of the unity of all things understood in the image, in a coherent form, the unity of thought and form. Philosophy in life is the reflection of daily activities, making the understanding of all things as common in our work, the embodiment of the unity of all things understood in the practical ideal of the unity of thought and action. Quite reconcile these expressions, such that they do separate terms of one concept, one of the individual characters.
Philosophy is the understanding of all things as a single and translates this understanding into an artistic image and moral action. It is the process of identifying the thoughts, images and actions...
So ... the philosophy, differing from other activities of the human spirit animates them all, according to the human side of them, interprets them to humans. Without it, the science - a collection of facts, art - a question of technique, life - the mechanism. Philosophizing - is to develop a person as a slender creature. "
PL Lavrov Three talks about the modern meaning of Philosophy / / Philosophy and Sociology. M., 1965. Volume 1, pp. 513-518, 571-572.
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