Philosophy of man

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Philosophy of man

Сообщение dilrabo_a » 27 фев 2017, 22:06

Philosophy of man

The plan:
1. Philosophical doctrine of man.
2. Philosophical questions of human problems.
3. The meaning of human life.
4. The problem of death in philosophical judgment.

"The most important thing in the world - a man
for he himself to the most recent target. "
Kant

"We are the first age in which people
completely and without reserve problematic. "
Scheler

1. Among the issues dealt with in the theory of being (ontology), knowledge (epistemology), the problem of man, and in particular, its origin, nature, place it occupies in nature, and its role in public life is one of the fundamental philosophical issues. Since the beginning of philosophy, and to date the person was in the center of her attention, and to date have other scientific disciplines (psychology, physiology, medicine, pedagogy), putting the main purpose of the study of various aspects of human activity.
Biology considers it as a form of Homo sapiens. Pedagogy for it - the object of education to sociology - the subject of a variety of social relations, to cultural studies - the object and the subject of culture, in economic theory - the main productive force, etc.
Among the natural sciences, along with the traditional (biology, anthropology, medicine, etc.), are a relatively new discipline (physiology of higher nervous activity, dentistry, sexology, etc.). The same can be said of the humanities, where together with the "old" sciences (psychology, sociology, linguistics, ethics) function "new" (axiology, hermeneutics, etc.).
The rapid development of scientific knowledge in the XX century, the parallel processes of active differentiation and integration of science has led to the emergence of a range of disciplines at the intersection of science and the humanities - bioethics and medical ethics, sociobiology, psychophysiology, etc. This is a new force raises the question the methodological role of philosophy in addressing the problem of man.
Unfortunately, despite the advances in the study of man, we have to admit that its origin, however, as the origin of life on Earth, is still a mystery, inaccessible to modern science. In essence, the lack of any convincing theory, supported by hard facts and arguments that can explain the formation of pre-history of mankind. Existing ideas about the man are mostly based on the hypotheses and assumptions.
Philosophy and medicine have the same object of study - man age. "Of all the sciences - wrote Hippocrates - the greatest and honor conceive philosophy and medicine. They healthily cultivate body and soul. " The relevance of the person is defined series of causes and house primarily epistemological. The history of science has shows that people - the most difficult subject to study. Since times in 5. O.e. the basis of his philosophy set the task: "Know thyself." Goethe believed that "the main object of study is the quality of human ." But it turned out that the man is less studied and more vulnerable than the world around him. Human life - a string of events that are caused by ever-changing circumstances of life with governments and changes its internal state.
In the late twentieth and early XXI century man got into a difficult situation: modern civilization entered a period of worsening global crisis (environmental, energy, socio-economic, demographic), threatening the lives of people planate. In international forums, scientists warn of fatal for humanity socially-oriented and non-regulated market economy.
A decrease life everlasting most people, their maladjustment. Increased risks to health and life. One observes an increase in social, especially infectious and mental diseases. The youths, who called into the armed forces, most of them are not ready for military service. In life takes a sick generation.
Man and Society, as scientists believe, lest the need to change in the new century. These reasons are enough to convince in need of mastering the future doctors for knowledge about man and modern society, which are based on fundamental philosophies.
Philosophical comprehension of man began in ancient times in various mythological, religious and naturalistic representations.
The philosophers of antiquity, especially the natural philosophers, saw man as an image of the cosmos, as "small the world", the microcosm. This view, of course, on a new basis, and played today. Man age it really is part of the cosmos.
Starting from ancient philosophers Socrates considered man hoists dual creature composed of body and soul. Plato correlated with the idea of the soul, Aristotle believed soul form.
In medieval philosophy major is not so much between the body and the soul of man age as between "carnal man" and "spirits man." The nature of man is understood as a three-part: the body - soul - spirit. Spiritual man century is his conscience, conscience with God, is realized in high feelings of Faith, Hope and Love.
In modern times, the specificity of human seeing is in the mind, in thinking, rationality. Clear with holding the soul - it is consciousness. This is the position that Decarie. Kant brings this concept a lot, but he puts in the long run above other cognitive abilities, of which there are at it three - races cruet stand, judgment, intelligence.
At the same time, the new addition to just consider concept of "homo sapiens" (wise man) won the high ground the concept of "ho mo Faber" (human activity). Important in human - is the ability to implement the action. Or that the essence of each person is his or her actions or the action, as in Mark , understood in the social sense. The main thing in an stances - work (activities), and the individual is an "atom" of a society in which "intersect" relationship.
Latest invention of modern philosophy nor ¬ time - a "superman" of Nietzsche. Now mind pony ripped apart as illness, delusions, deadens man age. Priority emphasis on passion, leadership, wine, smoking, violence of fantasy and improvisation, a protest against the pro-obedience and generally any feebleness.
Philosophy XX century continues to search for a genuinely human. Husserl's phenomenology proclaims the true nature of human experience in his mind - about education, understanding in accordance with the world of objects, of life.
Hermeneutics believe that the truth of human realized his existence in the world, understanding the world, overcoming the hiddenness things merge its prostrate with the boundaries of man as his stand-nancy time, concern, fear, and implemented in this regard as efficiency.
Philosophers and analysts see a man there in actively implementing their language abilities. In the field of language a person decides what, why and how after blowing.
According to postmodernists, people - there, rebellious in search of the sublime and the suffocating embrace of getting rid of dull, one-dimensional, boring, collective, totalitarian. Person can adopt the existing social norm only in the event that he is constantly pushed on them, in other words, deconstructs them.
The already discussed interpretations of human nature to add one more, which attract attention arises during the XX century. We are talking about the philosophy of the unconscious development of the Austrian psychiatrist and philosopher Sigmund Freud. Of the unconscious in man spoke and wrote many philosophers, including familiar Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche. But only Freud was able to give practical ideas about the unconscious critical value, they allowed him to treat people, them from mental illnesses. He created the doctrine called psychoanalysis. The main idea of Freud was quite simple: the man age - being erotic. The underlying essence of the man - sexual desire - libido (Freud later will be much talk about the two main Institute, the instinct of life - Eros and the death instinct - Thanatos). This attraction comes into conflict with co-knowledge, forced to react to the surrounding social environment with its many prohibitions. Sexually attraction forced out of consciousness, they began unconscious, appearing in dreams, in different kinds of irrational actions, neurodoses. Way out of neurosis - an analysis of mental , first find the unconscious (which makes qualified psychiatrist), and then, if the patient is able to do it, it takes the unconscious consciousness. It ceases to exist, disappear sources used painful neuroses. But nobody unable to save people from completely unconscious, because man is the foundation of his existence-stvo not conscious and the unconscious. It is the latter dominates. So consider the Freudians. Not all agree.
In philosophy, attempts are being made to create a holistic concept of man. According to the above concepts can say this about the man:
• Man and the unique and universal. The man - the crown of nature, which has no equal, it has locally abilities. But it is universal, nothing is alien to him - no space, no biological, sometimes coarse instincts, nor subtle, sublime activity sequence.
• Man - this is the ratio of internal and external him. Spiritual world - it is his inner life, but it is symbolized in various forms of activity in the game, work, artistic creativity. As a result, man is a being public.
• The person is one, but not uniform, not one-dimensional. Rights biological, active, intelligent, sensitive, rational, ethical - all union satisfied each particular person.
• A person creates his own inner world, the world prices of science, art, and morality.
• Man - being historical, and as such it tends to seamlessly integrate into the future, where he will face danger, the risk of being in a crisis, maybe even desperate.
• A man can not escape the burden of responsibility need a person and other people. And if so, then he needs a well-developed philosophical base.
2. The present level of human research in the natural sciences and the social sciences is that more and more strongly to the fore issues of generalization and systematization of knowledge about the person.
Specifically philosophical questions of human problems are the following:
a) the nature of man as a material object;
b) the ratio of the social (public) and biological (natural) in man;
c) freedom of the human person;
d) the dialectic of existence (being) and the nature of man;
d) the purpose and meaning of human life.
Personality traits are largely determined by the society in which it lives and develops. However, personality, as well as about stances, has a certain "self" and its own special mentality. Many definitions of personality - and psychological and educators and sociological. A general definition of philosophy it is not produced. But, despite the variety of approaches, philosophers and scientists agree that personality do with the unique, unique features necessarily carries with it the beginning of the public. "As magnetic properties - noted psychologist philosophizing (1889-1960) - from a variety of properties of man age usually identifies those that cause the public significant behavior or human activity. " Personality, thus, appears in the form of a certain individual person real terms socially relevant properties. It is a specific slice of life of public relations. Atri-Butnev, that is essential, properties and manifestations, without which a person can not become a person, first of all are the reason, will, love, creative and constructive activities sequence, responsibility, freedom.
It is clear that the individual "make" the personality of its socio-psychological characteristics: mind, will, temperament, social status and related guidance, value preferences and moral-ethical attitudes. It can be argued that the human individual personality contribute become only when learn to control themselves (the emotions, mind, body, behavior), as well as the ruling on their own preferences and inclinations. Personality is not a natural given the nature. It is formed of historic movement of human civilization.
Important parameter is the orientation of the individual it needs, interests and goals for public purposes. Isolated, usually two types of personal orientations: collectivism and individualism. By understanding individualism is the priority objectives and needs of the individual over the inters major groups of society. When the collectivist model the interests and needs of personality focused exclusively on public needs and demands. In the process of socialization of permanent, or, in other words, cultural growth, the individual autonomy of self possession philosophy of life, society ranks governmental values and some of them "do" her. Depending on the moral attitudes and aspirations, he re creases the most difficult question of his existence in the society - the meaning of life. All of this allows each person to express themselves creatively in accordance with their natural inclinations and individual abilities.
Individual can assert itself as the person solely in various and diverse social relations. Aristotle believed that "the destiny of man in the rational activity." And Jami called "beris for daily work, still alive, your strong hand", and Ibn Sina warned: "Idleness and laziness not only give rise to ignorance, they at the same time the cause of the disease." Such is the natural and necessary work of man.
3. The whole history of mankind is a history of endless, both natural and deliberate, searching and finding the man ¬ la sense of his life. Homo sapiens, as a person, reflecting on his being, inevitably raises the question: why am I here?
The meaning of life is of particular importance for medicine, because the doctor treats not only the body but also the soul of the patient in an effort to achieve possible harmony of man with the world, with himself. Furthermore, the question of the meaning of life is connected with the problem of death, with the fear of man before his own end, the assessment life. This is not only a moral and health, but above all the philosophical problem of human existence in all its diversity, from happiness to a tragic end.
Representation of the meaning of life are in the activities of the people and depend on their social status, lifestyle, philosophy, moral ideals, from the concrete historical situation. If a society, in the family, the team created favorable enabling environment for human life, meet their vital needs and interests, it is prone to positively evaluate his life, to see it meaning and value. If the company, the staff and even family are hostile to him, cruel, his own life would lose its value in this world. The consequences in this case may be different: care religion, mental abnormalities, suicide. For these people, life is meaningless, a nightmare, pushing them into anti-social acts.
Doctor, psychologist, teacher must be aware of the typical position of the people in these issues and respond to them, with humane goals, performing their professional duties.
Some see the meaning of life to overcome his death in individual existence, survival. There are many people, they have the force of circumstances or upbringing guided natural animal self-preservation. By and large it is too small and not enough for people who are altruistic collectivists warehouse with high culture and a strong sense of duty. From this position it is impossible to perform the feat, sacrifice. Others have seen the meaning of his life in the children, that is, in the continuation of life in the offspring. But this goal is limited and can not make a man with a wide-humanist thinking. They can be good parents, , but not citizens, able to be responsible to the team, the people.
The famous surgeon, NM Amosoveshe in 70 years said he was anxiously watching as some see the meaning of life in the acquisition of things. This passion overshadows them all masks a spiritual and cultural needs. Symptoms of "a material" of the disease. We must not forget about the high rank of a citizen, trans-migrate in the layman.
The meaning of life, according to the third, in the service of the motherland, "the kind of human-agency" (Dostoevsky). LN Gumilev in his theory of ethnogenesis of people call with drive, the behavior of which were greater than the pulse rite of self-preservation. The people also call them heroes. The purpose of life they have - the struggle against evil, for justice, for his people.
Conversely, the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche ideologue voluntarism meaning of life seen in the strength and power of the man who seeks to authorities over the crowd. It is an ideology of authoritarianism (Latin autoritas - power, influence) opposes democracy (gr. demokratia - power peoples) and modern human desire for freedom and equality. Against Christianity, Nietzsche claimed that it is the product of is "slave morality." He fought against bourgeois morality are considered false.
For religious people the meaning of life is defined in the quest for God, the immortality of the soul. For this they repent, praise God, and is kind. But this is done for the sake of his "salvation," for fear of "God's judgment." Consequently, this position egois analytic and characterized usually enough for any educated action with a weakened will, not independently.
For some people, life is generally meaningless. Thus, in French existentialist Albert Camus created a mythic image of Sisyphus, who became the personification of meaninglessness of human existence there ("Sisyphean task"), hopelessness and loneliness of human in the "absurd world."
Suffering, humiliation experienced person can it to the solution to give all his life to the revolutionary transformations of the society, or to someone to take a position rebel - singles to society, or to give up any struggle, to humility, the role of the voluntary victim of tyranny and chaos reigns self. In extreme situations of hopelessness and helplessness of his people can come to a conclusion about the meaninglessness of life in general. Such is already a symptom and requires the intervention of a physician or psychologist.
But the most interesting clinical case, when a person sees the meaning of life only in death, philosophizing 'life - is dying. " Of course, man, like all living things, is mortal, but not everyone contribute realize and accept this law of nature. These views are taken into account doctor, especially in gerontology (the study of aging) and thanatology (the study of death).
In Avar poet Rasul Gamzatova is a stanza:
Swarm swarm of thoughts in my head,
And I need only two.
Two thoughts enough for me, believe me,
One - about the life and one - of death.
4. Death of a person - a complex subject of philosophical OS mentally. The problem, as you know, is a timeless classic for philosophy. It was first staged legendary Socrates, taking the fateful court for himself and partly for the whole future of European philosophical thought solution - mind , but not to disgrace his honor and civic pride. NA Berdyaev wrote: "The problem is the crucifixion of the righteous in Greek culture was placed in the fate of Socrates and served spiritual impetus for the emergence of the philosophy of Plato. Death of Socrates, Plato made the people turn away from the world in which such a righteous man, like Socrates, to under undeserved penalty and seek a world of goodness and beauty, which can not be unjust death righteous nick. " Plato saw the death of Socrates, the great meaning. He said that his teacher "blissfully ended up", and hence cheat gained immortality. Plato, Socrates passing, wrote: "To fear death is nothing less than to think that you know what you do not know. After all no one did not know any of what death is, no, it is not whether it is for a man of great wealth, and everyone is afraid of her, as if they know for certain that she has a of evil. "
To know the philosophical meaning of human life, in contemporary scholars pathologists, one must first understand the meaning of death. This is true of copper acute medical and philosophical problem. "I'm going to die, just like everybody else, - wrote LN Tolstoy - but my life, and death will have meaning for me and for all. " Indeed, man life as a social phenomenon, in fact, is never finished. Its completion would mean that mankind has reached the limits of its existence. "I realized - confessed writer Tel - that if you think and talk about life, you have to think and talk about the life of all mankind." A man dies, but his relationship to the world continues to operate on people, even many times stronger than life, noted LN Tolstoy. And the effect of this as "reasonable and love" growing like all life, never ceasing, and not knowing breaks.
Unfortunately, feeling his forces start to act natural decay, some reason to think that the death - it is nothing like his last stage. Meanwhile, while the body is alive and has a zest for life, until death came into its own, is stored in each of us and the meaning of life.
Death, which is actually a man sentenced Law evolution experienced by each purely individual. The inevitability of death, a constant reminder of the need to rush to live. After all, a man not given to write a draft of life: time enough only to have to live with the fullness, actively to build, perfect, doing good, order, and beauty.
Infinite life of humans, animals, plants would close the possibility of evolution, the emergence and selection of new forms of living matter. In such a Thus, death is a natural and reasonable result of the existence of any living organism. Therefore, to meet her every man need to calmly and with dignity. Fear of death should not fill the soul and master it. Do not be afraid of death, urged the ancient philosopher Epicurus, for as long as we have, there is no death, and when death comes we no longer have, so it does not exist neither for the living nor for the dead.
The science that studies the problems of death and dying man called thanatology. According to its principles, the main problem doctor after the patient's death - to provide support to its cross and friends, despite the fact that physicians themselves often exist sensitivity themselves depressed when they can not defeat death, which always treated as personal enemy.
Today, one of the most pressing problems in all is related to life as the highest value. time to solve it will only allow the formation of public bioethical public consciousness. And a major role to play medicine, and now intended to eternal care of human health.
Conclude the chapter on the philosophy of man can appeal Academician IP Mika Pavlov to his disciples: "Man - the highest product of earthly nature. The man - a complex and subtle system. But in order to use the treasures of nature to enjoy these treasures, a person must be healthy, strong and smart. "












Used Books:
1. Akhmedov, MA Fundamentals of Philosophy. T.2006.
2. Radugin AA Philosophy: Lectures. - M., 1995.
3. Philosophy: Textbook / ed. VP Kochanowski. - Rostov n / a, 1999.
4. Philosophy: Textbook for Universities / Ed. LA Nikitin. - M., 2000.
5. Philosophy: A Student Handbook / Ed. GG Kirilenko, EV Shevtsova and others - Moscow, 1999.
6. Khrustalev YM Introduction to philosophy. - Rostov n / D: Phoenix, 1999.
7. Spirkin AG Philosophy. - M., 1998.
8. Shevchenko YL Philosophy of medicine. - MA, 20004.
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